According to WHO (World Health Organisation), a couple that has not reached pregnancy in a year of regular unprotected sexual intercourse can be considered infertile. It is not correct to speak about infertility of a woman or a man. It is always necessary to speak about infertility of a couple as only when they are together, they create a unique biological unit and the possibility of procreation of a child is determined by a great number of factors on the sides of both partners..
From the point of view of statistics, women as well as men contribute 30% to the cause of infertility of their couple. Cause in both partners is observed in 15 to 30% cases and in 10 – 15% it is impossible to diagnose a particular cause of infertility. This is an idiopathic (inexplicable) sterility. It is comprehensible that looking for the causes of infertility and their cure is a common issue of a marital or any other couple.
WOMAN – the most common gynaecological diseases as the cause of infertility
- tubal factor (impassable or damaged function of an oviduct)
- uterine factor (infection of endometrium and myoma of the womb)
- congenital malformation of genitals
- endometriosis (mucous membrane of the womb located out of it, mostly in small pelvis and on ovaries)
- hormonal factor (diseases of endocrine glands that can develop sterility)
- genetic factor (genetic disorder)
- immunological factor (production of various antibodies, for example against sperm, ova or embryos)
MAN – the most common causes of infertility
- pathology of spermogram (SPG)
Factors influencing SPG:
- internal (genetic and immunological factors, congenital malformation, of genitals, hormonal disorder, undescended testicles, sperm production disorder etc.)
- exogenous (environment polluted with chemistry and pollution – insecticides, herbicides, pesticides; radioactive and microwave radiation, heavy metals: civilisation influences – lifestyle, smoking, obesity, drugs, …)