Ovarian Cysts Puncture
It is an only minimally invasive procedure in general anaesthesia or local anaesthesia. It applies to so called functional thin-walled cysts which do not respond to traditional treatment. The puncture can be done only after the results of tumour markers analyses are received and after the colour doppler sonography of the ovarian cyst is performed.
The content of the cyst is aspirated by a needle inserted to an ovary through vagina wall under ultrasound control. This content is sent to a diagnostic laboratory for cytology tests. There are only minimum complications, gentle pain in the underbelly and slight mucous secretion in the majority of cases.
Dilatation of the Cervix and Fractionary Curettage
Dilatation and curettage usually serve to determine the reasons of abnormal bleeding.
The commonest reasons are:
– polyps of womb mucous membrane
– uneven thickening of womb mucous membrane
– cancer of endometrium
Dilatation and curettage may sometimes serve to stop bleeding. They are not recommended if you suffer from infection in the small pelvis. Both interventions are done in general anaesthesia, they take up to 10 minutes.
Female genitals are disinfected, the cervix is supported by special forceps, metal dilatators are used to widen and increase the passage in the cervical canal. The curette is used to separately remove samples of cervical tissue and tissue of womb cavity. These are sent to histologic tests.
The results are available after 14 days at the soonest.
After a short recovery period, the female patient may leave the clinic, if accompanied.
The patient must respect the soothing regime:
– bathing should be restricted (only showers)
– sexual intercourse should be avoided at least for 2 weeks
We recognise early complications (bleeding, painful underbelly, hurt cervix, perforated womb wall, hurt organs in small pelvis) and late complications (mostly infections).
Cervical Polyp Removal
This intervention serves to remove a small growth from either the cervical surface or the cervical canal, such protuberance causes discomfort mostly shown as spontaneous mucous secretion or secretion after a sexual intercourse.
Polyp removal is performed in general anaesthesia, it is mostly accompanied by dilatation and curettage of the cervical canal. This intervention takes 10 minutes.
After female genitals are disinfected, the polyp is either grasped in pean forceps, rotating movement releases the polyp from its base or is fixed in a pincette and cut off the base. It is sent for histologic tests. The results are available in 14 days at the soonest. The female patient is not exposed to lost time in work, the bleeding after the intervention is minimal.
LEEP (loop electrosurgical excision procedure)
Pathologically modified tissue is removed from the cervical surface. This intervention serves for both the diagnostics and the therapy in most of the cases, because it prevents any development of pathologies. It is done in general anaesthesia and takes up to 15 minutes.
After female genitals are disinfected and the cervix is well positioned and fixed, special steel wire loop (LEEP wire loop) which uses electric current to remove cells of pathologic tissue. Small steel ball stops any bleeding from the base, this ball gently burns all bleeding veins and tissues. Obtained material is sent for histology. The results are available in 14 days at the soonest.
Once this surgery is complete, avoid any physical efforts which could cause repetitive bleeding from the base of the scar left after the operation or an infection. Do not use tampons, prefer showers and avoid sexual intercourse for 4 weeks.
Diagnostic Hysteroscopy and Operation
Diagnostic hysteroscopy assesses the cervical canal and especially the womb cavity. It mostly monitors impairments in the uterine development, accretion, myomas, polyps in the mucous membrane, irregularities in the endometrium. Hysteroscopy as an operation allows us to excise polyps, myoma and separate accretions.
Indicated in cases of:
– repeated miscarriages
– suspected pathology in the womb cavity
– removal of the intrauterine device
– bleeding during the menopause
Hysteroscope is done in general anaesthesia, it takes approximately 20 minutes.
After female genitals are disinfected and the cervix is dilatated, the optical channel / fibre of hysteroscope is inserted in the womb cavity. A camera transfers video to a screen, where the doctor in charge of hysteroscope assesses the findings, checks, if there are polyps, myoma, what is the pattern of veins in the mucous membrane, the end of oviducts in the womb. If required, curette or a special /resection/ loop is used to clean the womb cavity.
Obtained material is sent to histology. The results are available in 14 days at the soonest.
The commonest complications after hysteroscopy are: hurt cervix or womb, bleeding and inflammation, however, these are not frequent. Respect soothing regime, prefer showers, avoid the use of tampons and sexual intercourse for 3 to 4 weeks.